Specifications of the formative and reflective model

Question 1:
1. Specifications of the formative and reflective model says they both are discrete,
proper details of specifications is important to know the relationship in the structural
model. Example, reflective model measures emotions which is used to measure
construct in all scales of business, whereas, formative model does not measure
emotions, it is dependable on operationalist and instrumentalist interpreter by the
For deciding which measurement model to consider, there are three broad theoretical
explanations. They are:• The nature of the construct; reflective model’s construct exists and is
independent of the measures used whereas in formative model, latent construct
is formed, Borsboom et al. (2003, 2004).• Characteristic of item used to measure the construct; Items are established
by the construct in reflective model, the items share common theme, items are
substitutable and adding and subtracting item does not change the domain of
the construct, whereas, formative model item explains the construct, it doesn’t
share a common theme and items are not substitutable and adding and
subtracting the item may change the domain of the construct, Rossiter (2002) ;
Jarvis et al (2003).• The direction of causality between items and latent construct; causality
forms from construct to item in reflective model and differences in the
construct effects the difference in the item measures and the difference in the
item measures does not cause difference in the construct, whereas, in
formative model causality form from items to construct where difference in
construct does not cause difference in the item measure and difference in the
item measures causes difference in the construct, Bollen and Lennox (1991),
Edwards and Bagozzi (2000);Rossiter (2002); Jarvis et al (2003).Empirical explanations are;• Item Correlations; Reflective model have high positive intercorrelations
whereas formative can have any design of correlations but possess the same
guiding relationship, Cronbach (1951); Nunnally and Bernstein (1994);
Churchill (1979); Diamantopoulos and Siguaw (2006).• Item relationships with construct antecedents and consequences; reflective
model have items with alike symbol and significance of relationships with the
consequences as the construct whereas formative is the opposite means it does
not have similar items, Bollen and Lennox (1991); Diamantopoulos and
Winklhofer (2001); Diamantopoulos and Siguaw (2006).• Measurement error and collinearity; identifying error in items is possible
but not in formative model where its not possible if the model is estimated in
isolation, Bollen and Ting (2000); Diamantopoulos (2006).Coltman (2008) says that formative model is the most suitable model for using in
development of a construct, he also mentioned that reflective model is more
applicable rather than formative, as per other scholars. Our group project was based
on reflective model for the construct. Our Construct was Trust and to measure that,
there were 10 items for measurement, in that, there were 6 items related to the
construct and 4 were not related questions which were there in the survey. Out of 4
there were 2 questions which were coded negatively, we even did Exploratory Factor
Analysis (EFA) which resulted in poor correlation as it’s supposed to be around .70
and our result is .479 (Cronbach’s Alpha), from 6 related item there was one unrelated
item. We could have used formative model for our project, the results would have
been more suitable to measure the construct but reflective model was the most suited
model to use as the items which we used could have unrelated and it would have been
hard to choose a construct. After all, Reflective model was the accurate model for our
Yes, students can apply the concepts of measureme…

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