This paper is a critical discussion about the self-esteem of workers from the perspective of emotional intelligence through the psychoticism personality of leader in the workplace. Discussions are encircling the definition of self-esteem, emotional intelligence and psychoticism trait; impact; challenges and outlooks.
In this new millennium, world is increasingly emphasized the development of human capital as a means of human resources in society, religion, race and nation. In fact, the development of human capital should be in line in the physical and material development of the country which is the rapid development is time to time. In the same tone, all employees in a workplace or organization are an entity of human resources should be an ideal capacity of human capital in terms of emotional intelligence in order to produce the quality of output.
In short, the leader in the workplace should have a stable emotional intelligence for a good personality trait that can help create a fun work environment, thus increasing the level of employee self-esteem and motivation. However, if the leader was characterized by negative psychoticism trait, it was not only affects the emotion themselves, but also the emotional impact of workers and will be damage the quality of work.
Obviously with this situation, the self-esteem among employees is to achieve their optimum level and thus can help achieve the percentage of success in realizing the vision and mission of the organization in particular and the country’s vision in general. The end of this paper will demonstrate the need for all leaders to have the emotional intelligence that is based on the strength of the ideal affective and personality as a catalytic force to help enhance employee self-esteem at the workplace. Key word: Self-esteem, Emotional Intelligence, Psychoticism Personality, Workplace Background
Construction of a nation would have no meaning without the function and role of men as citizens to move the process of governance, administration, management, operation and control. The statement on the meaning of a country would not be complete without the combination of the functions of the elements of society and humanity. For a developed nation, it should be in line with the development of human capital in each of its citizens. Supposedly, determining factors of human capital is the main emphasis on knowledge and expertise among the people for creating a developed nation.
Clearly, here, human capital or human resources are the most important entity in the organization compared with other sources that involve equipment, materials or procedures. As human beings, too, the human capital of first class is the main driver of the organization and determines success or failure of each vision and the mission of each organization. Human capital is the main man against the backdrop of diverse attitudes and behaviours that are centred on elements of cognitive (mind), affective (feeling) and psychomotor (physical).
Along it, in the process of forming the personality, attitude and mentality, people are more heavily influenced by the belief system as a result of the sustained momentum of socialization experiences during her life since childhood. But at the same time, knowledge and expertise and the value entity of the factors are relevant to the variation in the determination of human attitudes and actions in the implementation of the treatment of personal responsibility, families, organizations, communities, religions, races and countries.
In a similar vein, the human capital management should be in line with emotional and spiritual dimensions which is face of noble values and personality, nor translated into positive behaviour. In reality, the responsibility for managing human capital and the organization is not a relatively simple matter, especially if it is a multinational organization. The question would then arise whether a manager or a leader worthy to be a model in an effort to strengthening human capital through the trait of dynamic personality.
Availability of many issues today have showed the existence of bias in the attitude of a leader of an organization that causes many problems exist between the leaders and the workers which is led to conflicts with the prolonged crisis that could eventually threaten the common aspirations. Similarly, humans created by the presence of important domains within the mind, emotions (soul) and physical. In a series of long, people with high in the minds and thoughts are usually admired by all and made ?? n idol of the diversity of life strategies and the creation of a capability rocked environmental technology. The ability of the constant in the power of intelligent thought possible that the ability of other marginal triggered the empty spaces in a more profound nature and characteristics of emotion, soul and feelings. The gap exists between the mind and soul resulted in the progress of the past provides lessons for a thousand meanings, and refresh it back in the new rhythm and a new breath for common sense to be appreciated for generations to come.
Therefore, emotional intelligence or EQ in the present has start given special attention to the function and role in human life in order to improve the scenario the fact shortcomings, to see the country’s capacity to have a first-class citizen in every aspect. Thus, in this concept paper, the authors will highlight the discussion of the dimensions of psychoticism personality among leaders and the impact towards self-esteem employees through several elements in the emotional intelligence aspect.
Stable personality in a person who assumed the leader to give a significant impact on the level of self-esteem workers also will affect the climate and working environment for the production of quality work that is more focused and based on ethical values ?? and practices are in line with the personal universal human and humanities. Strong personalities at the leaders will help the leaders in the governing of human capital more effectively and the objectives of the course will be easy to achieve it together.
Purpose of Study The purpose of this study is to explore and discusses the influence of leader personality from the perspective of emotional intelligence (EQ) on employee self-esteem at workplace. This study was investigates too about the personality of leader which have a significant impact on the employee self-esteem and the way we discuss it is by the element of emotional intelligence aspect. Then we will see too how the psychoticism personality among leader will be impact to the employee self-esteem at the workplace.
Conceptual of Self-esteem The appreciation or self is part of the elements in the concept of self-esteem where the judge is a part of you. In simple language, self-esteem also means that the extent of an individual is receiving, a love and respects them. Thus, self-esteem have close relationship with the extent of an individual is putting himself in a situation that feels that he is appreciated by others or not.
In general, the availability of some models that is detailed in an effort to clarify questions about the aspects and causes the formation of high self-appreciation. Self-esteem has three main models of the affective model, a model of cognitive and sociological models. Self-esteem is also closely linked to elements of self-concept which exists in every individual human being when one sees himself through the subconscious mind self-concept is developed from childhood to become a significant element in the formation of self-esteem adulthood.
Abraham Maslow put the needs of their own self-esteem at the fourth level in the hierarchy needs to be fulfilled human life after a level-lower level needs first obtained. The existence of some facts that show the problems arising between the leaders and employees in the workplace so that employees are not motivated and result in low self-esteem (Kenneth, 2010). The effect is also working to provide optimal cooperation in the organization and will eventually provide a better variety of problems including the problem of interpersonal and intrapersonal issues.
Communication and interaction within the organization is loose because a variety of prejudices that complicates many of the jerks interfere with the main focus of the work. Its relationship to the discussion here is to explore the employee’s self-esteem from the perspective of emotional intelligence that exists in the personality of the leader. It is well to emphasize the importance of each leader has a strong emotional intelligence in personality as a leader to help enhance the employees self-esteem in the workplace. Conceptual of Emotional Intelligence (EQ)
From the terminology of psychology, emotions, the same age with the duration of the ages in the discussion about the scope and review of various studies both in terms of function and importance, although not directly talk about the concept of emotional intelligence. Emotions are also seen as the main branch in the domain of human education and it also a peg which allows complete in every moment of human existence is more meaningful to the embroider of variations of breath feeling sad, happy, joy and calm in the heart.
When the terms of the emotional intelligence starts to take place in results and scholarly writings and discussions about the needs assessment is as important as intellectual intelligence, the world has accepted the fact that for a man who managed the successful expression of true, not only requires the intellectual quotient but also the need for emotional intelligence elements arranged in various categories. Although all human beings are born has a heart and feelings, but not all dimensions of the heart is able to handle mold really is the nature of humanity in total.
It is synonymous with the words of Plato’s expression of “emotion is only held by men, but not all people have the humanity”. When the emotional focus as an important element in human life, then was exist the term of emotional intelligence (EQ). Emotional intelligence is seen as a set of emotional and mental skills that help each individual to identify and understand their own feelings and the feelings of others. Emotional intelligence will be able to help improve the ability of each individual to control his. Emotions are the strong feelings in people (such as sadness, anger, etc. . According to Oxford Advanced Learners’ Dictionary (2000), there was state that emotion is a strong feeling, and contains a variety of feelings such as love, joy, hate, fear, jealousy, feelings of excitement and disturbance. The Oxford American Dictionary (1999) describes as feeling a strong emotion of the particular aspects of mental and instinct. According to Goleman (1995), emotional quotient (EQ) is the ability to monitor personal emotions and other emotions, to distinguish the good, and to use the information to help the mind and the actions of a person. In 1996, the
Goleman said that emotional intelligence (EQ) is one’s ability to understand his own feelings and use them to make effective decisions in everyday life. Next is the opinion of Thorndike (1920), human emotional intelligence is related to the concept of social intelligence. Thorndike (1920) defines social intelligence as the human ability to understand and manage men, women and children to communicate effectively in human relations. He also has the emotional intelligence to categorize two main parts, namely interpersonal (emotional contact with others) and intrapersonal (emotional connection with the relationship with yourself).
Emotional intelligence can also be interpreted as a kind of social intelligence is responsible for controlling one, and a range of emotions, to discriminate against these emotions and use the information to control thought and an action (Mayer et al. , 1993:433). Based of opinion Mayer et al. , (1990), the interpersonal and intrapersonal emotional intelligence is categorized into five major domains that recognize the self, emotional self-management, self-motivation, and empathy and handling relationships effectively.
Empathy and handling relationships effectively are categorized in three others, while interpersonal intelligence is to know you; to manage emotions and motivate myself in that category is intrapersonal. In short, the discussion here also takes elements of emotional intelligence (EQ) as the base that serves as a perspective on the influence of leader personality on self-esteem of employees in the workplace. For that, a model of emotional intelligence (EQ) has been explored based on the Four Branch Model of Mayer ; Salovey (1990), which is namely: O Identifying Emotions O Using Emotions O Understanding Emotions
O Managing Emotions Emotional Intelligence from the Islamic Perspective Emotions are really closely linked to human psychology. In the Qur’an, has been called more about human emotions as well as in the hadith of the Prophet. Revealed a range of emotions that includes positive and negative emotions was as a guide for the people and the teachings of Islam. Through the Islamic perspective, emotional intelligence is actually more to the process of cleansing the liver. Essential to maintain care not to foul and not damaged very much required in religion as a clean heart is the spiritual food for the Holy Spirit.
With a good heart, it emerged that both the value of emotional intelligence. Heart will be dirty when people commit sin so that it became black and dark hearts. Damage to the human soul and conscience will eventually lead to personality, attitudes and negative behavior that is inconsistent with the nature of the purity of human beings. As a result, people who do not learn anything from his life is said to have been suffered blindness in her eyes, but also deaf ears not wanting to listen to the teachings of the good.
Obviously here, the emotional intelligence is closely related to religious values. What’s more it is linked to the spiritual nature of spiritual intelligence. The position of spiritual intelligence actually is it on the high when people trying to maintain its relationship with God, while the intellectual and emotional intelligence will bring people to keep in touch with himself, other humans and the environment. Even God Almighty also says in Surah Ash-Shams (91:8-10), which means; “He inspired the soul of wickedness and piety, and lucky for the purified, loss for the muss. Consistent with this discussion paper, the question of emotional intelligence is important in terms of underlying the leader personality or character in the workplace that will be assumed can help enhance employee self-esteem. Conceptual of Personality Every human being has value and the pattern of her own personality. Personality, also known as general it can be construed as a symbol of the personality characteristics of individuals who bring different characteristics to other individual. Personality refers to an individual’s psychological development as a whole.
Even the personality of an individual is also reflected by tendency to behave in a certain way. It was covering various aspects such as temperament, intelligence, sentiments, attitudes, interests, beliefs, ideals and values. According to Mahmood (1992), personality traits are available on an individual, such as thinking, acting, emotional, and perceived others to enable different from other people. The discovery of psychological researchers on personality characteristics found in humans is too many, for example, Allport (1937) who discovered the human personality trait of 17,953.
Some of them such as locus of control, achievement motivation, authoritarianism, mechiavellisnisme and self-esteem are the personality characteristics that affect work behaviors (Ishak, 2004). The type of personality that exists in every individual human being is the nature and diversity is shown through various studies-trait of human personality. Allport (1937) view of human personality is the result of a combination of biology and environment, while the inherited characteristics are shaped by individual experience.
In short personality is an organization that has the character, temperament, intellectual, physical, thinking, feeling and behavior. From an Islamic perspective, personality is defined as a ‘personality or character in general is’. Morals are divided into two types: praiseworthy character or moral misconduct (Shahabudin & Rohizani, 2002). Both types include a two-dimensional character of this same any outward or inward. The ostensible morality could be seen and measured from outside while the inner character is implicit in the liver, but it will eventually evolves through changes in behavior.
For an ideal personality, Islam emphasizes the balance between body and soul and enhanced physical health with diet and lifestyle. Similarly here, the heart of souls in need of spiritual food, a practice as a servant to God by doing everything asked of God and leave all that forbidden and with the glory of the practice, the nature of a servant to remove the negative sense of pride that the behavior is manifested as a highly moral. Thus, Islam has stressed the importance of these two types of probation is appropriate to the nature of man’s creation by God that man was created from the spiritual and physical elements, and very closely linked.
For the Muslims, the best character models are supposed to be an idol and an example is the character of the Prophet Muhammad as a Prophet sent by God to edify his people. As expressed by Saidatina Aisyah when asked about the Prophet’s morals, “his character was the Qur’an. ” It is clear here, all aspects of lifestyle perfection of Islam are embodied and more taught by the Holy Qur’an and it is translated through the character of Prophet Muhammad for guidance and follow the final days of race.
In this case, the interpretation placed on probation, either the inner or outer simultaneously and has a very clear relationship with the heart that the attitude of a man. Moral evil is caused by impurities in the human heart itself. This is consistent with what was spoken by the Prophet which is means; “In the cavity of the sons of Adam, there is a piece of meat. If the meat is good, then let all his body. If the meat is bad, then his body was evil. Know you that the meat is the heart” (Hadith narrated Bukhari & Muslim).
Dimension of Psychoticism Personality According the Theory of Hans Jurgen Eysenck One of the personality trait that psychologist find in the human personality is called psychoticism. One of them is Hans Jurgen Eysenck. Eysenck was known as a leading individual in the modern psychology of personality typology in the 20th century and suggests that the human personality would be great to understand if the hierarchy that consists of behaviour and sets the overall behaviour and important personalities.
Eysenck strongly believe that the whole basis of personality traits derived from the seed, in the form of types and traits. He also believes that the behaviour learned from the environment. According to him, the personality is an overall pattern of actual and potential behaviour of organisms, as determined by heredity and environment. The pattern of behaviour that originated and developed through the functional interaction of the four major sectors that regulate behaviour, namely the cognitive (intelligence), the conative (character), the affective (temperament), the somatic (constitution).
Eysenck has found three types of dimensions which are known as extraversion (E), neuroticism (N), and psychoticism (P), better known as PEN. Each dimension is different from each other and foreigners, until they can be combined freely between dimensions. Psychoticism can be combined together with neuroticism and extraversion, a three-dimensional shape. At first, he just highlights extraversion personality dimensions and neuroticism. But after doing research in a mental institution in England, he later discovered the psychoticism personality dimensions.
Like neuroticism, high psychoticism not mean that people are psychotic or natural to be like that, but it only shows part of the common characteristics found in the psychotic and the possibility of a person is more exposed to the environment that can cause it to become psychotic. However, it is possible also to those who have the personality to be exposed to the psychotic failure continues to be controlled from more chronic. Each type in the dimensions obtained by the Eysenck personality theory is a collection of nine traits, until it has a total of 27 traits.
Traits of psychoticism are: aggressive, cold, egocentric, impersonal, impulsivity (impulsive), antisocial, no empathy (unempathy), hard hearts (tough-minded). For the individual human being has a relatively high score psychoticism found by Eysenck traits often have a fairly aggressive, cold, egocentric, not personal, impulsive, antisocial, no empathy, creative and hard-hearted (same with above). But those who score relatively low psychoticism is a trait, such as treating like, kind, warm, attentive, friendly, quiet, very social, empathic, cooperative and patient.
Like in the extrovert and neuroticism, psychoticism has great genetic elements. Overall, by the analysis of Eysenck, three-dimensional character is a 75% hereditary and only 25% are caused by the environment. As in neuroticism, psychoticism also follows the model of stress-compensation (diathesis-stress model). Once again stressed that the high level psychoticism should not be a psychotic, but they have the potential to suffer from stress and psychotic disorders.
At the time of the individual human being only suffer low stress, high scores psychoticism may still be able to function normally. However, when the stress is relatively heavy, an individual who has become psychotic are difficult to return to normal. Special focus in the discussion of this concept paper is to trace the impact of personality traits that have psychoticism among the leaders towards employee’s self-esteem in the workplace through the perspective of emotional intelligence. In short, between emotional intelligence and personality or character s obviously a very solid relationship.
Therefore, the leaders of a leading character certainly have a high level of emotional intelligence and are able to create a climate that is more positive and able to master a respected and emulated by its employees in the workplace. Even the leader of this will always be more sensitive to the feelings of his employees to be able to perform the best for themselves, others and the organization. Here is a diagram to show a summary of ideas within a conceptual framework discussed in this paper. pic] Impact Dimensions of Psychoticism Personality among Leader towards Employee Self-Esteem This talk will trace some elements of psychoticism personality centred on the leader and what the extent that could impact on employee’s self-esteem in the workplace. Dimensions of psychoticism discussed are looking from the negative aspects of personality that needs to be changed to a more positive behaviour among leaders to help increase the level of employee self-esteem. The Impact of Aggressive Personality
Aggressive personality is one of the personality traits that exist in the personality psychoticism. In line with this issue, Baron and Newman (1996) have established a three-factor model of aggression in the workplace is the leader of feelings of hostility, and aggressive policy prevents openly. While Ryan and Oestreich (1991) also provides a model category, such as rough treatment, insulted, ignored, denounce, discredit, did not appreciate, the aggressive control of other people, making threats against workers, shouting, anger, temper and could potentially harm the physical.
In fact, several studies on the existence of an aggressive personality among the leaders of the workers in the workplace also see the existence of aggressive behaviour in non-verbal and verbal. In summary, the characteristics of the nature of an aggressive leader too when the leader is also very critical of the worker, very strong, brave, do not like being manipulated and very frank manner that is not appropriate for employees in the workplace. Leader shall also have such a feeling aggressive as always feel superior to him, priority rights and self-interest, vindictive, ill-tempered and likes to discourage other people or employees.
Associated with the scenarios in the workplace, aggressive leader who often acts as aggression, often with the employee, tempered and does not respect the workers will lead to employee frustration and low self-esteem is easy to feel at once will affect employee motivation. It is supposed to be leaders must ensure that as leaders, they need to reflect themselves about how far their personality when dealing with employees who are not necessarily a personality that far-fetched but it would have been a character, attitude, behaviour and way of thinking that is consistent in every situation as a positive personal.
In exploring these issues, the authors also explore the reality that exists in relation to the scene saw several organizations in the past and present. Bruce & Adam (2007) in their book entitled ’30 Reasons Employees Hate Their Manager’ have written their book with a source-based view of the statistics more than 50,000 employees from 65 organizations through The Discovery Surveys, Inc. ’s Normative Database (since 1993). All respondents were from manufacturing industries and service organizations, and contain a variety of sizes as small as 150 people up to 5000 workers.
The majority are from the U. S. companies and there is also a worker in another country. The study found that 46% of employees believe that management treats them with disrespect. Another study is by Abd. Ghani et al. (2008), found between the results of their qualitative research is the leader body language often shows non-verbal behaviour of rude and offensive. That caused the respondents experienced feelings of shock, disorientation and confusion at the very early stages.
In line with these studies, for example, characters of the leader characteristics of an aggressive personality more in fact that is also invited negative reactions from employees and even affect employee self-esteem turn affected the quality of work. Most effects were encircling the emotional impact among workers who contributed to the workers in a constantly fear, anxiety and chronic embarrassment just because the face of aggressive leaders. The Impact of Egocentric Personality
The next dimension is egocentric personality that leads to the question of the leader character is very selfish and always felt that his right until fail to become leaders who can listen to any complaints and feelings of employees. The attitude of the head of such a situation is certainly easy to invite rejection of support among the workers on the head itself so that it can affect the working climate of harmony in the workplace. Often a leader or manager at work are forgot to put the interests of workers as employees when in fact the main organization is the human capital to realize its vision and mission.
However, due to the character of leaders who would prefer to just focus on his own circle without considering the employees emotional, mental and potential in question and make a formal decision or determination of the direction task, the employee will ultimately result in less focused and less interested in the job. Certainly this situation also stems from a sense of self-esteem workers have deteriorated over the attitude of leaders who failed to put the employee as a valued employee.
The scenario is consistent with the findings statistically by Bruce & Adam (2007) which showed 52% of employees felt free to voice their opinions openly. In fact, 66% of employees were told that management did not want to hear their words and about 67% of respondents also said that the management failed to act on the advice of staff. The study shows that there is a direct nature egocentric character is when the head does not leave room for employees to express their opinions and feelings about work and working environment, and do not want to take into account the views of workers in decision-making process.
It is probable that the egocentric leaders also felt the staffs were too naive at the same time shows that the leader was look down the employee’s capability. Leaders also are more concerned what are they think and plan itself for no consideration for the employees think and hope is. The Impact of No Empathy Personality Leader personality was not empathy is the reason to the level of self-esteem of workers could be affected so that it can provide a major impact on the loss of self-respect and lose confidence in them (Abd. Ghani, 2008).
Should begin with a sense of empathy to understand the emotional process in which the leader began to think why he and others so emotional. Leader may also be involved in the equality of thinking to reflect the recommendations of the capacity to analyse emotions. These conditions include a dictionary to understand the emotions and attitudes on a combination of emotional, progress and the transition from self to others. Circumstances that indicate the level of empathy plays an important role. Leader should do the simulations he need to try to put himself in others shoes to understand their emotions.
In short, leaders who have high empathy are the ability to understand complex emotions and emotional chains and how the emotion is changed at every level. It is the same scenario at work that very much need every leader to have a sense of empathy for workers to head to penetrate the heart and the circumstances of each employee and will not misunderstand, then think that one can be prejudicial to relations within the organization. In fact, empathy of leader impact will be absorbed among the workers so that workers can strengthen their self-esteem and to cultivate empathic behaviour with colleagues.
The need for leaders to understand the emotions is also important for employees to communicate emotional meaning. If the leader is able to understand about the tide, ebb and flow of emotion, the leader should also be able to anticipate what might happen in the future with some reasons. Thus, no presumption would arise that bad for workers and leaders also should be able to predict whether the employee may be felt as a result of its success has a lot of emotion in his own treasury. Leader also is able to understand the emotional conflicts of employees to address the various problems that may arise in the workplace.
Even if leaders do not have the characteristics of empathy, it is possible to arise various problems such as loss of respect for workers on the head, feel hate, anger and resentment that may affect the unstoppable so focused on work as well as providing a significant impact on self-esteem of workers. In fact, it may not be up to the issue as a teacher in Kedah is hurting his boss of the way of punching and kicking (Utusan Malaysia Online, 27 April 2011) which became a symbol of the long pent-up anger, which most likely also arise for a variety of taste is not satisfied since the early stages.
The Impact of Anti-Social Personality Through anti-social personality dimensions, was found people with these personality types are more likely to comport with the regulations ignore the moral and ethical standards that exist in society and the global demand. Although on the face of an individual who has seen active and the personalities of others is often acceptable, but the fact that individuals prefer to manipulate and exploit others, and often violate the law, often took advantage and never feel guilty.
Even individuals with anti-social personality traits will also be doing things without considering the feelings of others, rather impulsive and difficult to deal with failure as the feeling that everything they do will not fail. According Cleckly (1976), anti-social people with the disease is usually easy to get bored with something or the state but they have a strong feeling to find something new. They can make a good first impression. A person who anti-social personality is without consciousness looks like scary or damaging other people to satisfy his own feelings.
They are smart to influence others to think that they are normal people although they do not actually have a mature mind, the establishment of a wobbly, and ignored the convenience and interests of others. In an environment in the workplace, it is possible that there is often a problem to be the leader characteristics such as anti-social like the ability to exploit workers or often take advantage of the naivety and the acquiescence of its employees. The study by Abd Ghani et al. 2008) shows that the dysfunctional behaviour that exist among school principals as the school chief example is when they are often given the task demands and workload rather excessive and unreasonable. Even the head of such an attitude also shows no sense of respect for employees and free to do what is liked without thinking of working conditions are physically and emotionally. It can be seen by respondent’s statement in an interview like the following: “… There when he asked for the work until 4. 00 pm. After that came the night is just to the expiration of all the work.
There, he was asked to come on Saturday to finish the work. We feel depressed …” (Source: G3) “… The way he made the decision was autocratic. He decided him just go willingly. Select a person he will, too. No one dared to ask … ” (Source: G4) “… I am always afraid when the principal walk near corridors of the class I teach. I’m so stiff, new kinds of teaching out of fear for one. Sometimes the idea stuck. The voice was stuck too. I am really tension when he was last. My relationships with students are also affected.
A lot of punishment than praise … ” (Source: G3) “… My tension is not finished until the last meal. Back home I tried to sleep but I always could not sleep for thinking of the events at the school … ” (Source: G8) Quite clearly through the examples in this interview, how the character of their leader have gave a big impact on their physical and emotional development as an employee. Therefore, it is no doubt that the head of the anti-social personality as above is also an impact on employee self-esteem where workers also have a sense of reality and not a robot.
Through the study of Bruce & Adam (2007) in various organizations industry found that a total of 7 of 10 employees said that there was no correlation between the wages they receive with the performance. This means they have to work hard with a lot of dumping duties would be but a little salary. In fact, 61% of respondents are not satisfied with the salaries that they have receive are not commensurate with the perceived power of sweat they have to offer. This once again implies that the head was exploiting their workers and the excessive use of labour.
Leader also forget that workers are also uman beings who need rewards commensurate with what is done, both in terms of the money, what more in terms of motivation and reward nor recognition of self as a gift, a certificate and recognition like ‘the best employee for the month’, and for that employee self-esteem can be improved in line with the increased quality of work. But the failure of leaders to appreciate the importance of the end result is too many shortcomings in terms of physical, emotional and minds among the workers and their impact in the long term. The Influence of Emotional Intelligence (EQ) towards Self-Esteem of Employee through the Personality of Leader
The question of the interpretation of emotional intelligence has clearly shown that the existence of elements of cleansing the soul that led to the positive characteristics and values ?? are translated to the personality and should be applied in everyday life that underlies the patterns of life. Together, the efforts to strengthen the emotional intelligence of individuals should not be considered silent because it is the main frame in order to strengthen other aspects of nature and transformed by the behavior and establish a more dominant personality with emotional intelligence.
In this discussion is accounted for dimensions that can help enhance employee self-esteem through the dynamic personality of the leader in the workplace that should be more consistent, compare than psychoticism personality which is more to unstable. Discussed below is on the basis of the Four Branch Model of Mayer & Salovey (1990) and the association. i. Identifying Emotions Individuals will begin to see, perceive and identify emotions shape whether sad, happy or scared at one time, including the stimulation of the environment in terms of the human voice, storytelling, music and the arts in this first stage process.
When the individual is more focused on the emotion itself, this dimension is closely related to awareness of a great emotional blow will enable the individual to also be thinking about things that may arise in the emotions of others. Usually this happens when there is a level that would stimulate the emotions that make the individual will begin to respond. Relevance to the scene leader and worker in the workplace is where the leader is able to identify her own emotions and her employee emotions.
Personality is always sensitive to the leader around what more sensitive to the feelings and emotions of employees will more easily enable leaders to identify what employees are feeling, when he also able to recognize his own feelings. Key words in this first process are appropriate when there is awareness of their own emotions and emotions of others. Leader should know how to find and label their own feelings and the feelings of workers accurately, if he wants to better understand themselves and others.
When the leader is always trying to find out how they feel, they would be more aware of the increase and shift every sense. This is important for a leader track and figure out whether the employee was disappointed because of the situation caused by the A or B. With that ability, the leader would be able to talk about feelings and the leader can also indicate his own feelings at the same time be able to detect any change in his feelings that exist both in the environment.
Indirectly, the personalities of these leaders will make employees feel valued, understood and respected. It is also an early indicator of the workers that their leaders can pave the way for discussion if the employee is found to have any problems. Consequently, the worker will be able to self-esteem improved since been directly affected by the personality of leaders who have the characteristics of a strong emotional intelligence. In fact, workers will also be more motivated to work together and strive to produce better quality work.
Quite clearly, the functions and roles of leaders in the workplace are very important in influencing the emotions of employees to give effect to the level of employee self-esteem. ii. Using Emotions The second stage is the part that shows the individual uses as a medium of emotion and reason on his mind in connection with a matter of rational, logical and creative. Using emotions may require the ability to use feelings to help some of the cognitive effort as the reason, problem solving, decision making and interpersonal communication.
Emotions can create a variety of mental set that proved to be more or less adjusted to the different types of ground work. With a discussion of the relevance of this process here is where the leader will start to focus his thoughts on the situation whether the attention, focus or motivation. Then head to the suitability of emotions associated with the situation and the leader that has the characteristics of this skill in his personality will be more creative, motivating and inspiring employees and not selfish.
Even the leaders who have the emotional skills will also be using emotion as a day to increase thinking. Then supposedly leader will feel the emotions first before thinking to interpret what you can before you act. Of course this is in line with what is emphasized in Islam when it is said that the heart and soul is the priority in disclosing behavior and personality. Therefore, it should be emotional and heart is an entity that is positive and good values ?? for the formation of behavior is also positive and generous.
In the same tone, emotion is able to strengthen the mind as the emotional mind working with a more unique method. Emotions can help to improve human thinking and problem solving skills to make decisions (Schwarz N. , 2002). Even the leaders are also able to constantly motivate the employees either directly or indirectly, and motivate employees to be smart to handle the negative emotions with a systematic method of thinking through the best sense of God’s grace in solving problems while working to change the medium to more positive emotions.
The momentum of the self will certainly strengthen the emotions, mentality and personality to become more excited and motivated to face any situation but also able to find solutions that are more relevant when dealing with any problems through the exploration of a wise and prudent. In Islam it has stressed that we need to work hard and try as though we will live longer, at the same time we also need to diligently serve God as if we were to die tomorrow. This expression should be a motivation to everyone if they can understand, appreciate and contemplate the meaning behind them.
Al-Ghazali discusses the motivation for this question in terms of intention and desire to do something before (Sa’id, 2008). Whenever a person has a goal and vision to do something, and then followed that action will realize the good intentions that are targeted to become a reality. With the strengthening of self-motivation, the leaders and workers will be clearer with the direction and goals in life. Vision and mission in the struggle to achieve success will always be a platform based on the spirit of self that is never give up to continue.
Motivated individuals who are symbols of people who strove to achieve the objectives of not abandon the question of personal ethics and moral values ?? and universal symbol of character strength. For the leader, no was losses to always provide external power and motivation to employees. Each byte has a meaning of its own word and employees can feel the strength that allows them to learn independently to achieve organizational goals in life in general and specifically.
Awards are given in many forms though to a minimum is very important because it enables them to believe that by behaving positively and produce quality work will continue to allow them accepted and respected by leaders and colleagues. But in the context of this neglect will cause employees to assess the human leader as a failure to help make them fun to work. This is consistent with the statistical findings by Bruce & Adam (2007) showed that 53% of workers have said that employers or their bosses did not positively motivate them to work. iii. Understanding Emotions
The third stage is to understand the emotional process in which individuals begin to think why he and others so emotional. Individuals may also be involved in the equality of thinking to reflect the recommendations of the capacity to analyze emotions. These conditions include a dictionary to understand the emotions and attitudes on a combination of emotional, progress and the transition from self to others. At this stage, the level of empathy plays an important role. Individuals are trying to put themselves in others to understand their emotions.
In short, individuals are also able to understand complex emotions and emotional chains and how the emotion is changed at every level. It is the same scenario at work that very much need every leader to have a sense of empathy for workers to be more to dive into the heart and the circumstances of each employee and will not misunderstand, and think that one can be prejudicial to relations within the organization. In fact, empathy is the impact will be absorbed among the workers so that workers can strengthen their self-esteem and to cultivate empathic behavior with colleagues.
The need for leaders to understand the emotions is also important for employees to communicate emotional meaning. If the leader is able to understand about the tide, ebb and flow of emotion, the leader should also know what might happen in the future, when able to predict and anticipate with some reasons. Thus, no presumption would arise that bad for workers and leaders also should be able to predict whether the employee may be felt as a result of its success has a lot of emotion in his own treasury.
Leader also is able to understand the emotional conflicts of employees to address the various problems that may arise in the workplace. It is also to prevent the existence of too many ‘red tape’ which can jerk the interaction between workers and leaders. If this can be overcome by the head, then will likely reduce the percentage of 53% which reflects the assessment of workers detected the presence of ‘red tape’ in the organization through a study (Bruce & Adam, 2007). iv. Managing Emotions This is the last stage in this model.
The process at this stage refers to the ability of individuals to control and manage their emotions and others. When managing their own feelings, we should monitor, differentiate, and label our feelings exactly. Some people certainly have more or less effective in helping another person to deal with emotions. For example, some individuals often know things that ought to say, to motivate colleagues and to provide inspiration to others. At this level, ability to control themselves and manage themselves should be considered. Things are quite important to ensure that decisions and actions made ?? ased on emotion and logic in order to get results.
Emotional management also includes the ability to manage and control the tremendous emotional when threatened to hurt feelings, whether physical, mental or emotional. Control emotions to create an individual right that can interact and communicate better with others. Positive emotions as a catalyst for positive thoughts and emotions can be controlled from a more emotional when the mind to think in a more rational. Leader should be able to apply the personality and the best model for its employees living, admire and emulate.
The success of the leader emotions that enable employees to handle these problems with more wisdom and parenting dimensions would produce a very dynamic effect but also help enhance employee self-esteem. Leader which is honest, interact and guiding employees also must be met for better work and be able to realize the objectives of the organization together. Strength in social skills is also the leader or worker to understand the other person with the ability to translate one’s feelings appropriately as a marker that he understood and accepted in the interaction or communication.
Every facial expression or body language should be easily understandable for the interactions that are meaningful. However, the leader who failed to manage and regulate their emotions will be seen by employees as a hot-tempered, selfish and arrogant. Unstable of emotion on the leader like this is often just want to achieve the objective of making decisions without emotion will usually fail to see the ‘forest for the trees’ (Salovey & Caruso, 2004). Current Challenges and Outlooks
Searching questions on psychoticism personality among leaders, giving emotional impact on employees has been brought to us about the reality that there are many phenomena that affect the workers, nor the emotion and character evolution in the self-chief himself. The phenomenon that exists from time to time, so without us realizing, problems at work that involves the interaction and relationship between leaders and employees is not an issue we can look trivial and is not an isolated issue.
In fact it is a string of evidence and the space to the world organization and the industry to do further research efforts in the on-going cover the emotional, mental and physical leaders and workers. Nor should the situation arise, such as ‘the storks’ a fun one-blame, and if the results are biased to leaders perception toward employees is different from the results of employees’ perception toward leaders which is always contra. Instead it is necessary to look at the question from multi-dimensional framework of fair and transparent of thought through a comparison of data and the actual argument that can be strengthened.
These issues demonstrate the continuity of the discussion of challenges and expectations that work on the positive and negative dimensions through several findings phenomenon. Among them is the actual scenario of workers who are victims of a leader or an employer fairly brutal causing clinical depression for 41% of victims, referring to a study by Bullybusters. org the online in Benicia, Canada is seeing the reality of abuse in the workplace.
The problem of bullying is indeed a sense claimed self-belief, self-confidence and respect among employees who are victims but also provides the physical symptoms of various diseases such as sleep disorders, ulcers, high blood pressure, loss of creativity and probably also suffered post-traumatic stress disorder (Kenneth, 2010). Kenneth (2010) also explained that after 20 years of research and results of 60,000 interviews conducted, then Saratoga Institute* reports that 80% acknowledged the existence of a direct correlation of dissatisfaction in the relationship between the leader of the employee or employer.
Referring also review the Gallup Organization about the recent reality of the one million workers, one of the reasons most people leave work was because the employer at the workplace. There are other studies by the Gallup also found that the management is very weak in 50% average 44% less productive and less profitable than operating a nicer group. According to Marie (1998), the results of a study found 89% of managers believe that employees leave a job or keep working it is because of money.
But in a study by Leigh (2005) with the cooperation with the Saratoga Institute found that as many as about 20,000 workers from 18 industries and from various other studies to detect as many as 80 to 90% of workers leaving the job is not for the reason of money. Then the argument was more focused on job factors, factors manager or leader, work culture and environment. Next Chapman (2006) explains there are studies conducted by the Chartered Institute of Management of stress and health at work among professionals. Results showed that anger and lack of humour among themselves while working to contribute to the stress in the workplace.
Such a situation is certainly affecting the performance of the business of the institute. The study also concluded that the humour serves to produce a good mood, staff, and inspired works of high and thus reduces the stress in the workplace. Stress at work can kill the staff and the organization itself (Granirer, 1999 in the Wan Zanariah, 2007). Then the study by the Ministry of Health in Malaysia has been estimated that a highlight of every 10 persons found to be psychotic problems (Zulkifli, 2007 in the Wan Zanariah, 2007).
Truly a work environment that is less comfortable and dissatisfaction in the work may also lead to mental problems. This situation involves stress, depression, sadness and so was able to kill people slowly (Granirer, 1999 in the Wan Zanariah, 2007). The above findings clearly reflect the actual scenario which is inherent and challenges in the workplace in the past, present or future time-as long as there had been no shift in the transformation of human governance.
That is the challenge that must be addressed and the opportunity for each organization will always detect such problems than to wander. It is quite clear also that the ability of a leader is to drive the workers under its operation as a strong group of organizations is not just solely depend on the revenue sources of the highest quality labour, but they also need to ensure that emotional labour should also be in a stable condition for it is closely related to the ability to focus totally on the production of better quality work.
Any problems that exist should be faced with the emotional stability and rational thinking through the ideal personality and emotional intelligence are intact. Certainly, workers are also human as the leader that also has a limitation of emotion and energy that cannot use by the leader without any restrictions. Along with that, is to be hoped that every leader in the workplace must ensure and need to their return to assess on their personality and character which should be more positive, what could they also be in and the same time they are also is an employee to the management of more high at the top.
Although the head line is from the different background, experiences and qualifications when at the same time they are as an employee and at the same time, they also are the leader for workers which are under their lines. Therefore, they should be more understanding of feelings as an employee and their strengths are quite different from the workers because they can explore and feel the feelings as leader too. There is also the leader are supposed to be more empathetic and need to easily detect the need to manage the climate in the workplace in line with the needs that are not set aside the question of humanity.
If the leader fails to change its own personality and character to an acceptable, it is likely that the leader himself will continue to face various problems associated with extreme emotions such as anger; stress, frustration, suspicion and paranoid to the next stage would be detrimental to self-itself with physical ailments like heart disease, high blood pressure and stroke. There is always the element of peace of mind needs to be enhanced by cleaning the soul within every leader is necessary to help shape the work environment to a more harmonious and also make workers more motivated to work with.
Self-esteem of employees would rise and can help the organization to achieve the aspirations and objectives by work together, so it will be easier to make it reality for all of the aim. Conclusion For the conclusions, dimensional stability of personality in psychoticism elements that must be more positive through the perspective of emotional intelligence among leaders is to be the main catalysts that can help enhance employee self-esteem thereby increasing the motivation and the quality of their work.
Leader also plays an important role to implement the elements of a positive character in the style of leadership to become a habit and can be appreciated by both the employee as a medium to give them a high level of motivation in the dimensions of self-possession of self-esteem. By having the robustness of the emotional and mental aspects, each employee will also have the personality and behaviour that is consistent with the demands of human nature to live harmoniously in all circumstances. Obviously this will also help reduce the stress suffered as a esult of the routine and work load is getting worse especially plus the coupled with commitment and responsibility at home. Emotional stability will enable employees to work with leaders to produce a better quality of work output as well as providing an ideal joy in interaction with the environment, including with the family and community. This connection makes the rhythm of psychology between employees and leaders are to become more dynamic and capable of achieving a healthy lifestyle that helps the stability of the social dimension of socialization.
Strength of the affective through the practice of moral values ?? will enable the community has triggered not just a first class facilities, but also have the first-class personalities and competent superior in terms of communication, appearance, knowledge, soul and mind so that it is possible to re-emerge as a nation people who admired and full of social, economic, scientific expertise as well as the continuity of human civilization glorious past, present and future. Success should also be as a bridge in order to achieve success and happiness in the Hereafter is more immortal forever.
Certainly also the leader should be the best model for the workers so that they can become the main alternative in dealing with issues of interaction and communication problems in the workplace between leaders and employees. In conclusion, employee self-esteem should be more enhanced and establish the dominant function of the leader by the dynamics personality through human governance practices with more systematic and based on values ?? that can be translated in the affective behaviour in the form acceptable to the organization, and so on in the community and the country.
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( USA, AUS, UK & CA PhD. Writers )